Cell division is the process by which a cell divides to grow and reproduce. Generally, cell division is of two types; mitosis and meiosis. These two types of cell division have many differences, but the cell that divides into both divisions is diploid.
Mitosis cell division is the process in which a diploid cell divides and forms two identical diploid cells. The parental cell is identical to the offspring. Mitosis cell division has five stages; interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
Meiosis cell division is a process in which a diploid cell divides into two haploid cells. The haploid cell has half the number of chromosomes as a diploid cell. The meiosis cell division has a total nine-stage which are broadly divided into two groups meiosis I and meiosis II. Meiosis I has five stages; interphase, prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I, and telophase I, whereas meiosis II has four steps prophase II, metaphase II, anaphase II, and telophase II.
The difference between mitosis and meiosis
Although the cell dividing is diploid, mitosis and meiosis have many distinctions. The differences are as follows:
|The result of mitosis is two diploid cells.||The result of meiosis is four haploid cells.|
|The cell division completes in a single division.||The cell division has two divisions.|
|The stages in mitosis are interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.||The stages in meiosis are interphase, prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I, telophase I, prophase II, metaphase II, anaphase II, and telophase II.|
|Mitosis occurs in all the body cells.||Meiosis occurs in sex cells only.|
|The daughter cell or offspring is identical genetically.||The daughter cell or progeny is not identical genetically.|
|Cytokinesis occurs once.||Cytokinesis occurs twice after each telophase stage.|
|Genetic recombination or crossing over is absent.||Genetic recombination occurs as a result of random segregation of homologous chromosomes.|
|No tetrad formation.||Formation of tetrad in the stage prophase I.|
|The prophase is not divided into any stages shorter than prophase I.||Prophase I is further divided into five stages; leptotene, zygotene, pachytene, diplotene, and diakinesis.|
|Sister chromatids align at the metaphase plate.||The tetrads align at the metaphase plate in the second metaphase (metaphase II).|
|Sister chromatids separate into daughter chromosomes in the anaphase stage.||Sister chromatids does not separate into chromosomes in anaphase I.|
Sister chromatids are pairs of identical copies of DNA joined at the centromere
Tetrad is a group of four closely related chromatids of a homologous pair formed by synapsis.
- meiosis | Learn Science at Scitable. Nature.com. (2022). Retrieved 13 July 2022, from https://www.nature.com/scitable/definition/meiosis-88/.
- What is mitosis?. @yourgenome · Science website. (2022). Retrieved 13 July 2022, from https://www.yourgenome.org/facts/what-is-mitosis/.